Exploring Key Features of Multi-Link Operation (MLO) in Wi-Fi 7

Wi-Fi 7, or IEEE 802.11be, brings a host of advanced features designed to enhance wireless communication. Central to these advancements is Multi-Link Operation (MLO), which leverages multiple frequency bands to improve data transmission.

This article explores five key MLO features:

  • Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STR)
  • Multi-Channel Multi-Radio (MCMR)
  • Enhanced Multi-AP Roaming (E-MAR)
  • Non-Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (NSTR)
  • Multi-Link Multi-Radio (MLMR)

Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STR)

STR allows devices to transmit and receive data on different frequency bands simultaneously. This capability significantly improves data flow and reduces latency, making it ideal for applications requiring real-time data transmission, such as online gaming and video conferencing.

  • Imagine a dual-lane highway where cars (data packets) can travel in both directions at the same time, rather than waiting for one lane to clear before proceeding.

Multi-Channel Multi-Radio (MCMR)

MCMR involves the use of multiple radios and channels to maximize data throughput and network performance. By utilizing different channels and radios, MCMR ensures that data can be transmitted more efficiently, reducing congestion and enhancing overall network speed.

  • Picture several parallel roads with cars moving on each, optimizing traffic flow and reducing bottlenecks.

Enhanced Multi-AP Roaming (E-MAR)

E-MAR allows devices to seamlessly switch between multiple access points (APs) without losing connection. This feature enhances mobility and connectivity, especially in dense environments like office buildings or shopping malls, where users frequently move between different network zones.

  • Visualize a traveler moving through an airport, connecting to different Wi-Fi hotspots without dropping the call or losing the connection.

Non-Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (NSTR)

NSTR is a mode where devices transmit and receive on different frequency bands but not simultaneously. While it doesn’t offer the same level of efficiency as STR, it still improves data transmission compared to single-link operations by leveraging different bands for sending and receiving data.

  • Think of a single-lane bridge where traffic moves in one direction at a time, but still allows for efficient passage by alternating the flow.

Multi-Link Multi-Radio (MLMR)

MLMR utilizes multiple radios to manage different links, ensuring efficient use of available spectrum and enhanced data throughput. By distributing data across multiple links, MLMR optimizes the network performance and reduces the likelihood of interference.

  • Envision multiple train tracks with trains (data) moving along each track, optimizing overall transportation efficiency.


Wi-Fi 7’s Multi-Link Operation (MLO) features, including STR, MCMR, E-MAR, NSTR, and MLMR, represent significant advancements in wireless technology. These features collectively enhance data throughput, reduce latency, improve connectivity, and ensure efficient spectrum use, paving the way for faster and more reliable wireless networks.

This article was very much slanted towards the POSSIBLE options in Wi-Fi 7’s MLO… but by no means is any of these technologies proven, or even available with any/all/some of the available Wi-Fi 7 access points or Wi-Fi 7 client devices. 

I’m guessing only a couple of these technologies will make it into mainstream usage. But is IS good to know of the options!